An Interpretation for Modern Day Philosophy

October 14, 2018

The following dialogue takes place between philosophers at a dinner when the conversation moves to the topic of happiness, and the role that pleasure, desires and virtue play in achieving it:

Aristotle: For me, I believe happiness is the ultimate end and the complete reason for our existence. It is the exercise of virtue. Happiness cannot be achieved until the end of one’s life and therefore it is a goal and not a temporary state.

Hobbes: Yes, I agree. Happiness is not a constant rest in the enjoyment of what we desire but instead is made up...

Austin v. Hart

June 15, 2018

Both Austin and Hart explain how they believe law and morals are separated. In the "Province of Jurisprudence Determined," Austin writes: "The existence of law is one thing; its merit or demerit another. Whether it be or be not is one enquiry; whether it be or be not conformable to an assumed standard, is a different enquiry (p. 18). While in "Positivism and the Separation of Law and Morals," Hart writes: "What both Bentham and Austin were anxious to assert were the two following two simple things: first, in the absence of an expressed constitutional or legal provision,...

The Law Prohibiting Electronics In School

December 4, 2018

It is a law that changes only one sentence in the education code but could profoundly affect the daily lives of school children and high school students at the start of the 2019 school year.

On Thursday, June 7, 2018, The National Assembly adopted a bill that prohibits the use of laptops in schools and colleges. The new article 511-5 stipulates that the smartphone becomes non-grata "except for the places where, under the conditions it specifies, the internal regulations expressly authorize it". 

This reform aims to translate Emmanuel Macron's campaign promise into action. Shortly after its...

If Socrates Escaped from Punishment

June 1, 2018

The ultimate controversy regarding the conviction of Socrates is whether one should accept the punishment imposed on him by legal means that are unjust. Aquinas provides a framework for thinking about obligations in the face of both unjust laws and generally just laws that have been unjustly applied.  It is evident that Aquinas has some beliefs that run parallel with those of Crito, Socrates’ good friend who offered to save him from death. Furthermore, Aquinas believes that changing the laws can damage the common good to a certain extent but is necessary and just if the...

“Be the master of yourself” - Happiness as Freedom

December 19, 2018

Over the years, many people have expressed their opinions on happiness, freedom, and being the best person overall. Is happiness attainable? What makes up happiness? Will the goal of achieving happiness lead to unfulfillment? These are just a few of the questions many famous philosophers considered. John-Jacques Rousseau, Immanuel Kant, John Stuart Mill, and Sigmund Freud are some of those who have unique accounts about this complex phenomenon. 

John-Jacques Rousseau was a social and political theorist that was born in Geneva, Switzerland in 1712. To Rousseau, happiness is an equilibrium between our desires and the power...